Johns Hopkins University Secondary Support Initiative (JHUSSI)  

DEFENDS Strategy



Purpose of Strategy/Approach


Use DEFENDS writing strategy to write paragraphs and theme essays and papers. In combination with the DARE strategy, use DARE to DEFENDS to plan and write persuasive opinion papers.


Rationale of Lesson


Students will compare and contrast two science fiction short stories The Veldt and All in a Summer Day by Ray Bradbury through a variety of print, non-print, electronic, and other media to develop their ability to comprehend and critically interpret the short stories’ significance from a historical and or cultural context of technology.


Acknowledgment of Content Expert and Consultants


Pam Mayette and Dr. Mary Ellen Beatty-O’Ferrall


  • computer(s) with Microsoft Excel software
  • graph paper
  • pencils
  • colored markers
  • highlighters
  • DEFENDS poster (at least one)
  • copies of DEFENDS prompt sheet that can fit on an index card
  • index cards
  • glue sticks
  • tape
  • overhead projector or computer with projector
  • thesaurus in book form or computers providing access to thesaurus over the internet
  • English journals or pieces of paper

References and Web Resources


DEFENDS Strategy References and Web Resources