Johns Hopkins University Secondary Support Initiative (JHUSSI)  

Collaborative Summarizing



Purpose of Strategy


Use collaborative summarizing strategy to improve students’ ability to create accurate and succinct summaries of key criteria through cooperative learning and consensus negotiation.


Rationale of Lesson


Students will examine the practices and beliefs of Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism to define ‘philosophy’ and develop their understanding of the goals of Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism in building institutions and shaping society.


Acknowledgment of Content Expert and Consultants


Katrina F. Webster and Dr. Lawrence J. Kimmel



  • time framework poster (at least one)
  • rules for consensus negotiation slide
  • rules for consensus negotiation poster (at least one)
  • time framework on a 8” x 11” piece of paper
  • overhead projector or whiteboard
  • pencils and or pens
  • social studies journals
  • copies of material on Confucianism, Legalism, or Taoism to each group, which is found at
    • Confucianism (Break into two segments of material.)
    • Legalism (Count as one segment of material.)
    • Taoism (Break into two segments of material.)