Johns Hopkins University Secondary Support Initiative (JHUSSI)  



Fluency is the ability to read accurately, quickly, and with expression (RAND, 2002). Fluency develops over time and with practice. Reading fluency is characteristic of four basic elements: accuracy, rate, expression, and punctuation.



Beginner readers have slow and labored fluency, since they are just working on decoding familiar and unfamiliar words accurately. As their ability to recognize words with automaticity improves, so does the rate with which they read. Children continue to develop the ability to read with proper expression through repeated practice and exposure to models by fluent readers. The reading and writing connection continues to be apparent when readers utilize a text’s punctuation to appropriately phrase and pace their reading (Partnership for Reading, 2012).


The following lessons highlight group strategies that can be used to help readers make a text come alive. Through partner reading and reader’s theater, fluent reading can be taught and modeled to demonstrate how appropriate accuracy, rate, expression, and punctuation increases a reader’s comprehension and level of enjoyment derived from a text.